This information of the Geology Tour is taken from the fantastic notes and pictures of Allan Donaldson & Chris Findlay, Friends of Canadian Geoheritage, Geotour of Frontenac Arch Biosphere Reserve (2008). Please refer to this attached pdf for further information.
This Geology Tour (approximately a day long) has been designed to provide you with an overview of the geodiversity within the Frontenac Arch Biosphere Reserve, and to demonstrate earth-science principles to those with little or no previous geological training.
Click here for the descriptions and photos of each Geology Tour stop.
The varied landscapes within this region are dictated by the three basic components of the underlying geology noted in the Geology Overview (see pdf link above). The first is the Frontenac Arch, the extension of the Canadian Shield that extends southward to link with the Adirondacks of New York State. Rocks within the Arch comprise of metamorphic and intrusive igneous rocks of the Precambrian Grenville Series, more than one billion years old. The second component includes all of the overlying Cambrian and Ordovician (Paleozoic) sedimentary rocks (sandstone, shale, limestone and dolostone beds) that range in age from 400 to 500 million years. The third component includes the unconsolidated cover deposits lying on the Precambrian and Paleozoic bedrock. Glacial till, an unsorted mix of particles ranging from clay to giant boulders, was deposited during Wisconsinan advance of a continental blanket of ice up to 3 km thick during the Pleistocene Ice Age.
The nine listed areas collectively illustrate the major geological components of the region: metamorphosed Grenville rocks of the Precambrian Shield; unmetamorphosed quartz sandstones at the base of the overlying Paleozoic strata; and unconsolidated deposits of Pleistocene glacial till, sand and gravel that intermittently blanket the older consolidated rocks.